FlightSimmer.GR
Air Navigation

Air Navigation

Intoduction       Air navigation is all the procedures that need to be done by someone to be able...

Basic Principles

Basic Principles

     If we want to succeed a proper air navigation, we must move from the departure point to our...

VFR

VFR

       VFR (Visual Flight Rules) is one of the two regulations governing all civil flights...

IFR

IFR

        IFR (Instrument Flight Rules) are the rules when flying ​​under such weather conditions...

IFR Procedures

IFR Procedures

        During an IFRIFRDefinition: Instrument Flight Rules... flight, there are specific...

  • Air Navigation

    Air Navigation

    Sunday, 16 June 2013 19:50
  • Basic Principles

    Basic Principles

    Sunday, 16 June 2013 19:50
  • VFR

    VFR

    Sunday, 16 June 2013 19:50
  • IFR

    IFR

    Sunday, 16 June 2013 19:50
  • IFR Procedures

    IFR Procedures

    Sunday, 16 June 2013 19:50

  

     IFR (Instrument Flight Rules) are the rules when flying ​​under such weather conditions that the pilot cannot rely on visual observation. On IFR flights the pilot gets information from instruments and uses navaids ( eg VORVORDefinition: VHF Omnidirectional (Radio) Range...
, NDBNDBDefinition: Non-Directional (Radio) Beacon...
), GPSGPSDefinition: Global Positioning System...
and other navigation systems . When we fly IFR we can fly with IMCIMCDefinition: Instrument Meteorological Conditions...
conditions unlike flying VFR
.

    The separation of aircrafts during IFR flights within controlled airspace radar, is made ​​by the air traffic controller, who is responsible to give proper directions to avoid collisions. The ATC is tracking flights by radar or through reports from pilots themselves . When the controller informs that the aircraft is under radar contact , then the pilot must stop report his position , unless requested by ATC.

     On IFR flights under controlled airspace, is necessary the authorization from the controller at any stage of the flight. The instructions given by ATC is usually to follow a direction, a procedure or a certain altitude and also communication parameters , such as flight transponder code, communication frequencies etc.. It is important to mention that during IFR flight , the pilot must follow all IFR rules, although if he has VMCVMCDefinition: Visual Meteorological Conditions...
conditions that allowing VFR flight.

     During an instrument flight , there are no restrictions for visibility. So we may fly in zero visibility conditions e.g. between clouds. This is not covering landing and take-off, where there are still restrictions on the minimum weather conditions that must exist. These restrictions depend on the airport, the navaids that are available, the location and altitude of the airport, as well as the equipment of the airplane and the skills of the pilots.

    To facilitate instrumental flight, there are available for helping the pilots , shore navaids such as VOR / DME, NDB and satellite GPS / GNSS. Also there may be guidance from air traffic control to perform various procedures. Modern flight management systems (FMSFMSDefinition: Flight Management System...
) of the aircrafts, allowing the crew to plan all stages of the flight , from departure or either during the flight
.

 

For FlightSimmer.GR
 Giannis Evagelinos