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Basic Flight Instruments

Basic Flight Instruments

   Introduction      The basic flight instruments located in the cockpit of an airplane are...

Airspeed Indicator

Airspeed Indicator

   Airspeed indicator       One of the oldest and most important instruments in the panel of an...

Altimeter

Altimeter

   Altimeter      Altimeter is the instrument which shows the aircraft’s altitude from sea...

Magnetic Compass

Magnetic Compass

   Magnetic Compass         The magnetic compass indicates the position of the aircraft...

Attitude Indicator

Attitude Indicator

   Attitude Indicator      The attitude indicator or otherwise artificial horizon is the...

Heading Indicator

Heading Indicator

   Heading Indicator      Heading indicator or HI is the instrument that shows us the direction...

Vertical Speed Indicator

Vertical Speed Indicator

   Vertical Speed Indicator     Vertical Speed Indicator or otherwise variometer, is the...

Turn and Balance Indicator

Turn and Balance Indicator

   Turn and Balance Indicator      Turn and Balance Indicator is a double-role instrument. As a...

Flight Control System

Flight Control System

   Introduction     Flight control system of an airplane is the set of all parts that it needs...

Basic Flight Control Systems

Basic Flight Control Systems

          When an airplane is changing attitude in flight, it's moving around one or more of the...

Secondary Flight Control Systems

Secondary Flight Control Systems

        The secondary flight control systems, are operating auxiliary with the basic flight...

Air Navigation

Air Navigation

Intoduction       Air navigation is all the procedures that need to be done by someone to be able...

Basic Principles

Basic Principles

     If we want to succeed a proper air navigation, we must move from the departure point to our...

VFR

VFR

       VFR (Visual Flight Rules) is one of the two regulations governing all civil flights...

IFR

IFR

        IFR (Instrument Flight Rules) are the rules when flying ​​under such weather conditions...

IFR Procedures

IFR Procedures

        During an IFRIFRDefinition: Instrument Flight Rules... flight, there are specific...

Charts

Charts

Introduction       For the proper Aviation, there are specific charts that showing the right...

IFR Charts

IFR Charts

       To be able to execute an instrument flight (IFR), we should consult and follow the...

Airport Charts

Airport Charts

       These charts providing information about the provision of the facilities in the airport...

SID Charts

SID Charts

       SID (Standard Instrument Departure) are the charts that showing us how to reach the exit...

  • Basic Flight Instruments

    Basic Flight Instruments

    Friday, 26 April 2013 01:35
  • Airspeed Indicator

    Airspeed Indicator

    Friday, 26 April 2013 01:35
  • Altimeter

    Altimeter

    Friday, 26 April 2013 01:35
  • Magnetic Compass

    Magnetic Compass

    Friday, 26 April 2013 01:35
  • Attitude Indicator

    Attitude Indicator

    Friday, 26 April 2013 01:35
  • Heading Indicator

    Heading Indicator

    Friday, 26 April 2013 01:35
  • Vertical Speed Indicator

    Vertical Speed Indicator

    Friday, 26 April 2013 01:35
  • Turn and Balance Indicator

    Turn and Balance Indicator

    Friday, 26 April 2013 01:35
  • Flight Control System

    Flight Control System

    Monday, 06 May 2013 16:35
  • Basic Flight Control Systems

    Basic Flight Control Systems

    Monday, 06 May 2013 16:35
  • Secondary Flight Control Systems

    Secondary Flight Control Systems

    Monday, 06 May 2013 16:35
  • Air Navigation

    Air Navigation

    Sunday, 16 June 2013 19:50
  • Basic Principles

    Basic Principles

    Sunday, 16 June 2013 19:50
  • VFR

    VFR

    Sunday, 16 June 2013 19:50
  • IFR

    IFR

    Sunday, 16 June 2013 19:50
  • IFR Procedures

    IFR Procedures

    Sunday, 16 June 2013 19:50
  • Charts

    Charts

    Thursday, 19 March 2015 15:55
  • IFR Charts

    IFR Charts

    Friday, 27 March 2015 10:31
  • Airport Charts

    Airport Charts

    Thursday, 05 November 2015 13:33
  • SID Charts

    SID Charts

    Friday, 06 November 2015 09:49

 

     SID (Standard Instrument Departure) are the charts that showing us how to reach the exit point of the Terminal area of an airport. Every SID chart may have more than one procedure. SID applies to IFR flights and each of these procedures include various waypoints that an aircraft must pass in specific heights.

     To perform such a procedure, an aircraft must have suitable equipment for proper identification of these waypoints and also to be able to follow possible restrictions that exist for this SID.

     Here it's a SID chart from Jeppesen, that describes some of the procedures that are designed for I. KAPODISTRIAS airport in Corfu.

 

 

     At the top of such a chart, the following Information is displayed, from the left to the right:

 

 

  1. ICAO and IATA code and airport's name.
  2. Chart's date.
  3. ID of this chart.
  4. City and Country the airport is located.
  5. Apt Elev which is the elevation of the highest point of the airport's runways in feet.
  6. Transition level and Transition altitude of the airport. Informs us that Trans alt is at 5000ft and the Trans level is defined by the air traffic controller. There are also some notes refering in this specific chart.
  7. MSAMSADefinition: Minimum Safe Altitude...
    (Minimum Safe Altitude) is the diagram specifying the minimum safe heights we must have, so we will have a safety height of 1000 feet from any obstacle within a radius of 25 nautical miles from the waypoint (in this case the VOR GAR). This diagram is used in emergencies and does not offer Navigation. The circle contained in the chart is divided into sectors which each applies different heights. Every such height called minimum sector altitude.
  8. Here are the names of SID procedures that discribed in the chart. This chart has RIPID 1B and RIPID 1F. Inside the bracket it's the name of the procedures as shown in electronic devices of the aircraft (FMS, GPS etc.). Below are the runways from which we must take off in order to execute these SID.

 

     Next we see the diagram of the procedures:

 

 

  1. In yellow zone it's the RIPID 1F.
  2. In green zone it's the RIPID 1B.

 

     c. INFORMATION BOXES. These frameworks are found along a procedure. Within are described some limitations or guidelines, actions to be taken by the pilot, instructions for the heading and height, restrictions for the climb, etc. In this chart we see limitations in speed, that the pilot must follow while passing by these turns and also what bank angle should turn.

 

     d. Here the chart informs us that in this route we must not descend below 4500 feet. The Number above the route shows the distance in miles from previous to the next waypoint. In this case it's a distance of 20 miles between D12 GAR and GARITSA VOR.

     e. Fix point with its name and Geographical coordinates. In this case the name showing the distance of the waypoint to GAR VOR (12 nm).

     f. Heading we must follow in that point.

 

     g. Here it's the name of the KRK VOR (above) and below that the frequency and its ICAO name. There is also the Morse code and the Geographical coordinates. “D” refers to DMEDMEDefinition: Distance Measuring Equipment...
Information. "(H)" refers that the VOR is used for High altitude. We may see "(Τ)" in other charts and it shows that the VOR is a Terminal one, while "(L)" shows that VOR is for low altitude.

 

     h. In this symbol, the arrow shows us the heading of the magnetic North. Below the chart informs us that all drawings are not to scale.

     i. Here is listed the minimum climb rate required for each procedure exists in the chart. So in RIPID 1B our aircraft should have a climb rate of 371 feet for every mile until we reach 1800 feet. Then we should be able to climb with a minimum of 304' per mile up to FL80. Respectively in RIPID 1F we should have at least 371 'per NM up to 4500'. The table below refers to the climb rates in accordance with the ground speed. For example VSIVSIDefinition: Vertical Speed Indicator...
του αεροσκάφους, άνοδο τουλάχιστον 618 πόδια το λεπτό για να πετύχουμε την απαίτηση για 371' per NM">a plane that climbs with a speed of 100 knots per hour, should climb at least 618 feet per minute to achieve the requirement of 371 'per NM.

 

     k. In this section we will see any instructions and/or limitations that exist for the departures of the chart. So, we see that the departure RIPID 1B shows us that immediately after take-off and for about half a mile, we should have reached more than 500 feet, having visual observation for obstacles in the area. It also tells us that if the wind has an easterly direction and intensity more than 30 knots, then during our climbing we should have visual observation until 1800 feet.

     l. Finally, in this table we see the routing to be followed for each procedure, but having a detailed reference for every stage. Also informs us for the active runway of each departure. For example we see that in RIPID 1F we must climb with runway heading until two miles where we must also have to be at 500 feet. Then turning left heading 249 degrees until 12 miles from the VOR GAR and on radial 294. Then we turn right to GAR. When we reach there we must follow the radial 138 from GAR or 318 inbound KRK, until KRK. From there we turn right onto the radial 162 reaching RIPID joining the airway N732.

 

 

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  Giannis Evagelinos